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美好社会的朝圣者

聊以慰藉那在寂寞里奔驰的猛士,使他不惮于前驱。

 
 
 

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The Prince  

2014-05-22 18:13:15|  分类: 随笔 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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用中国的学术思想来比喻,《君王论》是“法家为主,儒家为辅”。得民心者得天下,君主的目标必须是高尚的,重视君主的道德形象,这些类似于儒家思想。但马基雅维利认为君主只需假装有道德来维护形象,在必要情况下可以使用邪恶手段,如不讲信义、使用暴政;为人所惧胜于为人所爱,因为臣民在安宁时如何表忠心,在危难时都会跑得远远的;君主应积极主动向有限的数个大臣征询意见并鼓励他们直言,但在不征询意见时,臣下什么也不能说,以此维护君主自身尊严;建立君主控制的、独立的军队……这些思想与法家的为帝王谋、强调权术相似。
马基雅维利直白地强调权术招致了道德家对他的猛烈抨击。但他的目的是辅助一位君主壮大起来,进而统一意大利,结束意大利的乱局,赢得国家独立。
马氏论抗争命运也值得一提。洪水难以避免,但我们可以筑坝减轻其危害;命运难以拒绝,但我们可以做一些准备以应不测。人还是有自己的自由意志的;人还是有自己的力量的。
Speaking in the style of Chinese academic thoughts,in The Prince legalism is given priority to while the Confucian  is complementary.Getting the heart of civilians is getting the country,goals of the prince must be noble,and his moral image is significant:these are similar to Confucian.However,Machiacelli thought the prince just need to pretend to be virtuous to keep his image good,if necessary he can use evil methods such as betrayal and tyranny;being afraid of is better than being loved by his subjects,because they express their loyalty when the country is safe but when difficulties come they would forger what they have said at all;the prince should postively ask several ministers for advice and encourage them to speak out,but when he doesn't ask them,they should say nothing to save his dignity;establish an independent army controled by the prince……these thoughts resembles the legalism which emphasises playing politics and schemes for the prince.
Machiavelli's frank emphasis on playing politics causes fierce attacks from moralists.But his aim is assisting a prince to be strong,ending the mess,unifying Italy and eventually winning the independence.
His viewpoint on struggle against the fate is also worthy of mentioning.It is hard to avoid the flood,but we can bulid dams to reduce its destructions;it's hard to escape the destiny,but we can do some preparations to handle the unpredicted.Mankind still has his free will;mankind still has his own powers.
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